Eastern Rite Catholic Churches, the Orthodox Churches, as well as some Anglican/Episcopalian parishes, and Lutheran churches. You might find a crucifix in other Protestant churches, but they would be few and far between.
There are several reasons why the Catholic Church (and others) use the crucifix as a symbol of our faith and others do not. These reasons include:
- Paul's statement in 1 Corinthians 1:23, "we proclaim Christ crucified." Christ's crucifixion is something we find beautiful, because it is the high point of his sacrifice for us.
- The crucifix is a symbol of what is happening in our liturgy - the re-presentation of the cross in a non-bloody manner on the altar in the form of the Eucharist.
- Many Protestant denominations went through a period of clearing out symbols for fear of violating the second commandment (in the Protestant listing of the 10 Commandments, which differs from the Catholic one) of not having graven images and of appearing too "Catholic".
- Many Protestant denominations emphasize the Resurrection over the crucifixion. Neither is complete in-and-of-itself, but each place a different emphasis on a part of the whole act of salvation offered by Christ.
There are many benefits to having visual signs of our faith. We are able to focus better in prayer when we have the visual representations of what Christ did for us, all (especially those unable to read) can see depictions of the life of Christ, etc. We are bodily creatures and our prayers should be both bodily and spiritual.
The Catechism says:
617 "The Council of Trent emphasizes the unique character of Christ's sacrifice as "the source of eternal salvation" and teaches that "his most holy Passion on the wood of the cross merited justification for us." And the Church venerates his cross as she sings: "Hail, O Cross, our only hope.""Peace.